# Balance laws¶

## Elasticity¶

Mathematical models for continuum mechanics rely upon governing laws that ensure the balance of mass and momentum in the system being modeled. Below we provide the equations for balance of mass and linear momentum used in the material methods section.

### Lagrangian view¶

Law |
Formulation |
---|---|

Balance of Mass |
\(\rho J - \rho_0 = 0\) |

Balance of Linear Momentum |
\(\rho_0 \frac{\partial}{\partial t} \bm{V} - \nabla_X \cdot \bm{P} - \rho_0 \bm{g} = 0\) |

\(\bm{P}\) is the *first Piola-Kirchhoff stress tensor*, \(\bm{V}\) is the Lagrangian velocity defined in (3), and \(\bm{g}\) is the gravitational acceleration.
\(\rho\) and \(\rho_0\) denote the mass density and initial mass density, respectively.

### Eulerian view¶

Law |
Formulation |
---|---|

Balance of Mass |
\(\frac{\partial}{\partial t} \rho + \nabla \cdot (\rho \bm{v}) = 0\) |

Balance of Linear Momentum |
\(\rho \frac{D}{D t} \bm{v} - \nabla \cdot \bm{\sigma} - \rho \bm{g} = 0\) |

where \(\bm{v}\) is the Eulerian velocity (4).

Note

The *balance of linear momentum* can be written in the equivalent form

by expanding \(\rho \frac{D}{D t} \bm{v}\) using (6) as

where we have used the identity \(\nabla \cdot \left( \bm{u} \otimes \bm{v} \right) = \bm{u} \nabla \cdot \bm{v} + \left( \nabla \bm{u} \right) \bm{v}\).

## Poroelasticity¶

For an infinitesimal volume element \(dv\), the particles of the fluid phase and solid phase are assumed to exist together. In other words, \(dv\) is a superimposed continua, which is defined as the sum of the partial volume elements \(dv^s\) and \(dv^f\),

The volume fractions of the fluid phase \(\phi^f\) and solid phase \(\phi^s\) are defined via

The saturation condition is obtained by a combination of above equations as

Note that \(\phi^f\) is the commonly used concept porosity \(\phi\) in soild mechanics. In the hereafter, porosity \(\phi\) is used to represent the volume fraction of the fluid phase, and \(1-\phi\) to represent the volume fraction of the solid phase.

A variety of terminologies have been introduced in engineering practice to describe the velocities of the solid and the fluid phase of the mixture. Fluid velocities are usually expressed relative to the motion of the solid phase. For example, the relative velocity vector of the fluid with respect to the solid skeleton motion (true seepage velocity) is

The other more commonly used relative velocity is the superficial (Darcy seepage) fluid velocity given by

Darcy velocity represents the relative volumetric rate of discharge per unit area of the fluid-solid mixture.

The continuity equation of the fluid phase is given by [Che16, DCC13]

where \(\zeta\) is the variation in fluid content, \(\gamma\) is a fluid volumetric source and \(\bm q = \dot{\bm w}\) is the flux vector. Integrating (29) with respect to time (assumed zero initial value) we obtain

The balance of linear momentum for the mixture theory is given by

where

is the bulk density of the porous medium. For the fluid phase, the balance of linear momentum or generalized Darcy’s law is

where \(\bm f^f\) is the fluid body force,

is the permeability coefficient, with \(\varkappa_{\circ}\) the intrinsic permeability, and \(\eta_f\) the dynamic viscosity of the fluid phase, and

\(\rho_a\) is apparent mass density. In some reference \(\rho_w\) is defined as

where \(\alpha_{\infty}\) is the tortuosity.